The treatment use of investigational drugs usually occurs at which stage

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The treatment use of investigational drugs usually occurs at which stage

Patients with cancer invading the inner half of the muscle of the bladder wall have a better outcome than patients with invasion into the deep muscle outer half of the muscle of the bladder wall.

The potential benefits of receiving cancer treatment must be carefully balanced with the potential risks of receiving cancer treatment. The following is a general overview of the treatment of Stage II bladder cancer. Circumstances unique to your situation and prognostic factors of your cancer may ultimately influence how these general treatment principles are applied to your situation.

The information on this Web site is intended to help educate you about your treatment options and to facilitate a mutual or shared decision-making process with your treating cancer physician.

Most new treatments are developed in clinical trials. Clinical trials are studies that evaluate the effectiveness of new drugs or treatment strategies. The development of more effective cancer treatments requires that new and innovative therapies be evaluated with cancer patients.

Participation in a clinical trial may offer access to better treatments and advance the existing knowledge about treatment of this cancer. Clinical trials are available for most stages of cancer. Patients who are interested in participating in a clinical trial should discuss the risks and benefits of clinical trials with their physician.

To ensure that you are receiving the optimal treatment of your cancer, it is important to stay informed and follow the cancer news in order to learn about new treatments and the results of clinical trials.

There are essentially two ways to treat patients with Stage II T2 bladder cancer: It is important to realize that several physicians, including a urologist, a medical oncologist, and a radiation oncologist may be required to assist you in making the appropriate decision concerning the initial choice of treatment for Stage II bladder cancer.

The general health condition of the patient may help determine which approach to treatment is most appropriate. It is important to consider whether the patient is well enough to undergo radical cystectomy and creation of an artificial bladder.

It is the general health condition, rather than age, that can be the limiting factor for this type of surgery. For patients in good condition, the choice will depend on the extent of cancer and the preferences of the patient and treating physicians.

A radical cystectomy involves removal of the bladder, tissue around the bladder, the prostate, and seminal vesicles in men and the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, anterior vaginal wall, and urethra in women.

In addition, a radical cystectomy may or may not be accompanied by pelvic lymph node dissection. In some cases, Stage II bladder cancer may be controlled by transurethral resection TUR if the cancer is small enough and does not extend far into the bladder wall.

A TUR is an operation that is performed for both the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. During a TUR, a urologist inserts a thin, lighted tube called a cystoscope into the bladder through the urethra to examine the lining of the bladder.

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The urologist can remove samples of tissue through this tube or can remove some or all of the cancer in the bladder. In addition, a segmental cystectomy partial removal of the bladder is also appropriate therapy in some patients with small cancers. Chemotherapy Prior to Cystectomy Following a radical cystectomy, local recurrence of cancer is uncommon because the cancer was removed.

Despite undergoing complete removal of the bladder, however, some patients will still develop distant recurrences because undetected cancer cells called micrometastases spread to other locations in the body before the bladder was removed.

Treatment with a systemic whole-body therapy such as chemotherapy may reduce or eliminate these micrometastases. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy refers to chemotherapy that is given before surgery. The rationale behind neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer is twofold.

First, pre-operative treatment can shrink some bladder cancers and therefore, may allow more complete surgical removal of the cancer. Second, because chemotherapy kills undetectable cancer cells in the body, it may help prevent the spread of cancer when used initially rather than waiting for patient recovery following the surgical procedure.

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported that patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who received chemotherapy prior to cystectomy had better survival than patients treated with cystectomy alone.

Bladder-preserving therapy is appealing because patients who achieve a complete response to treatment can often avoid additional treatment with a radical cystectomy unless they experience recurrence of their cancer.

In some clinical trials, approximately half or more of patients who were treated with bladder-preserving therapy initial TUR of as much cancer as possible, plus chemotherapy and radiation therapy survived cancer-free for three to four years after treatment.

The treatment use of investigational drugs usually occurs at which stage

These results appear as good as those observed with radical cystectomy, but there have been no direct comparisons between bladder-preserving therapy and radical cystectomy. While bladder-preserving therapy has been widely adopted for the treatment of Stage II bladder cancer, some physicians still think it should be limited to clinical trials and not adopted as standard therapy.

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Chemotherapy Alone as Primary Treatment Response rates with chemotherapy alone are likely to be lower than response rates with combined approaches to treatment, and treatment with chemotherapy alone remains investigational.Drug and Alcohol Withdrawal. Withdrawal occurs because your brain works like a spring when it comes to addiction.

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The Company will present data on its investigational antibiotic, meropenem-vaborbactam, from the TANGO 1 Phase III trial that compared it to piperacillin-tazobactam in the treatment of complicated. Liver cancer is hard to diagnose as symptoms and signs are vague and nonspecific.

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