This is by no means exhaustive, cataloging all of them would take many hours more. I am only including politically-motivated, leftist violence for which there is verifiable evidence police statements, videos, or photos:
But a number of challenges remain. Many countries in the European Union explicitly penalize hate crimes as such through the criminal justice system. Some have separate criminal offenses for violent attacks carried out with racist or other hate motivation. Others provide explicitly for higher sentences when a violent offense is carried out with such motivation.
Germany takes a different approach. Nor does it explicitly provide for higher sentences for them. But the courts can still take hate motivation into account during sentencing using general sentencing principles.
The crimes may be recorded as politically motivated crimes, which are broken into four categories, including right-wing extremism. In practice, however, the conflation of politically motivated crimes and hate crimes, and an understandable focus on combating right-wing extremism, means a hate crime may not be recorded or investigated as such.
This can occur for example where a perpetrator lacks either an obvious ideological motivation as in an attack on a person with disabilities or a lesbian, gay, bi-sexual or transgendered person or clear links to the extreme right. While police performance in responding to racist attacks and other hate crimes has generally improved, particularly in forces with dedicated community liaison officers, there are still concerns amongst victims and victim support organizations about the police response.
Victims of hate crimes and victim support groups presented Human Rights Watch with examples of cases in which the police at a crime scene had focused their questions on the victim rather than alleged perpetrator, had sought to discourage victims from filing complaints, or had failed to take basic investigative steps, all of which undermined confidence in the police.
Victims are sometimes reluctant to report hate crimes to the police for example because of negative prior experiences with the police in Germany or elsewhere. Specialized victim support organizations feel that further work is necessary to strengthen cooperation with police, and ensure for instance that the police inform them systematically when a hate crime occurs so that they can offer to assist the victims.
The performance of prosecutors and judges in handling hate crimes has improved.
Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey. BJS: Bureau of Justice Statistics Measuring the Prevalence of Crime with the National Crime Victimization Survey. Janet L. Lauritsen, Ph.D., Bureau of which collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons . In , the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act amended the Hate Crime Statistics Act to include bias against persons with disabilities. The Church Arson Prevention Act of cemented the Hate Crime Statistics Act by making the collection of hate crime data a . PUBLICATIONS. Stay Informed motivated by his conviction, commits an unlawful act designed to attack the social structure to bring about a reorganization of the system. Concomitantly, a political crime is any unlawful act committed by a political criminal. Distinctions are made among totally political crimes, politically relevant crimes.
States now have specialized prosecutors trained in politically-motivated cases, but due to caseload and the duty roster, duty prosecutors may have to take on prosecutions of a hate motivated crimes on the day of the hearing even if they do not have specialized training or experience. This is despite the fact that prosecutors have independent authority to order the police to pursue that line of inquiry in their investigation if that they are not doing so.
Where evidence of hate motivation does not surface during a prosecution, it is also highly unlikely that the prosecutor would call for that factor to be taken into account during sentencing in the event of a conviction. Justice ministries in some of the key states and the Federal authorities argue that hate motivation is taken into account as a factor in sentencing when appropriate.
While this might be the case, victims of hate crimes, victim support groups and criminal lawyers suggest that it is often left to the lawyers acting for the crime victim to call for this factor to be taken into account if evidence of hate motivation emerges at trial.
Prosecutors cannot be relied upon consistently to make this call themselves. The same sources also indicate that judges have a mixed record of taking hate motivation into account as a factor in sentencing even when it is raised. But with some simple steps it could be greatly improved: The police should build on successful efforts already underway to strengthen ties with affected communities and victim support groups.
Prosecutors should be trained to thoroughly examine the possibility that racial, homophobic or other hatred may have been a motivating factor in an attack, to order further investigative steps where necessary, and to put hate motivation forward as a factor in sentencing where appropriate.
Judges should receive further training on how to identify and assess relevant evidence of hate motivation, and when to take it into account. Germany has not been immune, with attacks reported on ethnic and religious minorities, asylum seekers, refugees, migrants, Germans of migrant origin, lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgendered LGBT people and other vulnerable groups in recent years.
We carried out research in Berlin, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, speaking to victims of violence, associations supporting and representing victims and minority communities and criminal lawyers.
Human Rights Watch interviewed ministry and police officials as well as prosecutors. In addition to conducting field research, we analyzed existing laws and regulations, reviewed news reports, and examined studies by international bodies, academics and civil society.
Other sources of information included court judgments, parliamentary materials and public campaigns.
This briefing paper does not represent a comprehensive survey of the phenomenon of hate crimes in Germany or the criminal justice response to such crimes.
Instead it sets out the common concerns we identified across a number of states. The decentralized nature of policing in federal Germany and the way in which hate crimes are classified, makes assessing the scale of hate crime in Germany a complex task.
According to data published by the Federal Ministry of Interior in April there were 2, offenses of violent politically motivated crimes recorded in and 3, in Information provided to Human Rights Watch by the Federal Ministry of Interior indicates that the number of violent hate crimes in Germany has remained around per year since Seven organizations for victims of right-wing, racist and anti-Semitic violence in the eastern states and Berlin have published their own joint annual statistics since Inin the eastern states and Berlin alone, these organizations counted right-motivated violent offenses involving at least 1, victims.
The Federal Ministry of Interior argues that any discrepancy between the official and unofficial statistics can be explained by victim support groups relying solely on the subjective assessment of the victim in determining whether the offense was motivated by hate. But victim support organizations also argue the differences arise from a police failure to assess some crimes as hate crimes, and from the fact that some victims report attacks only to victims associations and not to the police.In the classic text Hate Crimes Revisited, Jack Levin and Jack McDevitt outline the history of hate crimes, explain why some persons are motivated to commit these crimes, and discuss efforts to combat them (Levin and McDevitt , cited under Defining Terrorism and Hate Crime).
Victims in 15 percent of hate crimes thought it was motivated by sexual orientation, in 12 percent of crimes they thought it was motivated by religious bias, and in 10 percent of crimes they suspected the motivation was against their disability.
Eurasian TOC groups are politically and financially motivated organized crime groups influenced by, associated with, or originating from .
digital world to facilitate crimes that are often technology driven, including identity theft, payment card fraud, and intellectual property theft. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Aug 14, · (Twenty-six of those incidents were perpetrated against Trump supporters.) The SPLC has presented that data in aggregate, creating an invaluable .
Crime rates amongst “non-Germans” outside the residence act are up 13 per cent, whereas crimes committed by Germans Mr. de Maiziere insisted in focusing on “politically-motivated crimes by the far-right” which he said had risen 35 percent in to nearly 23, But today’s statistics reveal that as a percentage of the.