This essay is a compilation study of the British empire with an emphasis of the decline. With the help of the literature and lectures of the subject it clarifies and comprises the withdrawal from India as well as the Suez crisis as the most crucial elements of the fall. The British Empire was in fact the largest in the history of mankind, spreading over and influenced the whole world. Leaving it as a completely different place than it was before, the legacy of which we can see today.
Historical framework[ edit ] Historians agree that the Empire was not planned by anyone. The concept of the British Empire is a construct and was never a legal entity, unlike the Roman or other European empires.
There was no imperial constitution, no office of emperor, no uniformity of laws. So when it began, when it ended, and what stages it went through is a matter of opinion, not official orders or laws.
The London bureaucracy governing the colonies also changed, policies to white settler colonies changed and slavery was phased out. The book points out how and why Britain gained the colonies, the character of the Empire, and the light in which it should be regarded.
It was well written and persuasive. He also warned that India had to be protected and vastly increased the responsibilities and dangers to Britain. The book contains the much-quoted statement that "we seem, as it were, to have conquered half the world in a fit of absence of mind". Newton lamented that Seeley "dealt in the main with the great wars of the eighteenth century and this gave the false impression that the British Empire has been founded largely by war and conquest, an idea that was unfortunately planted firmly in the public mind, not only in Great Britain, but also in foreign countries".
Although protected by the Royal Navy, they were not funded or planned by the government. India was in a category by itself, and its immense size and distance required control of the routes to it, and in turn permitted British naval dominance from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea.
The third group was a mixed bag of smaller territories, including isolated ports used as way stations to India, and emerging trade entrepots such as Hong Kong and Singapore, along with a few isolated ports in Africa.
The fourth kind of empire was the "informal empire," that is financial dominance exercised through investments, as in Latin America, and including the complex situation in Egypt it was owned theoretically by the Ottoman Empire, but ruled by Britain. Following the defeat of Napoleonic France inBritain enjoyed a century of almost unchallenged dominance and expanded its imperial holdings around the globe.
Increasing degrees of internal autonomy were granted to its white settler colonies in the 20th century. Its power, both military and economic, remained unmatched in They saw a benevolent enterprise. Younger generations branched off into a variety of social, economic and cultural themes, and took a much more critical stance.
Representative of the old tradition was the Cambridge History of Indiaa large-scale project published in five volumes between and by Cambridge University Press.
Some volumes were also part of the simultaneous multivolume The Cambridge History of the British Empire. Production of both works was delayed by the First World War and the ill health of contributors; the India volume II had to be abandoned.
Reviewers complained the research methods were too old-fashioned; one critic said it was "history as it was understood by our grandfathers". Armitage thus links the concerns of the "New British History" with that of the Atlantic history.
BeforeArmitage finds that contested English and Scottish versions of state and empire delayed the emergence of a unitary imperial ideology. However political economists Nicholas Barbon and Charles Davenant in the late 17th century emphasized the significance of commerce, especially mercantilism or commerce that was closed to outsiders, to the success of the state.
They argued that "trade depended on liberty, and that liberty could therefore be the foundation of empire". Anti-imperial critiques emerged from Francis Hutcheson and David Humepresaging the republicanism that swept the American colonies in the s and led to the creation of a rival empire.
Mercantilism[ edit ] Main article: Mercantilism Historians led by Eli Heckscher have identified Mercantilism as the central economic policy for the empire before the shift to free trade in the s. It was the economic counterpart of political absolutism.
Mercantilism dominated Western European economic policy and discourse from the 16th to lateth centuries. Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars and also motivated colonial expansion. High tariffsespecially on manufactured goods, are an almost universal feature of mercantilist policy.
Other policies have included:British Mandate In Palestine Essay Although British control of Palestine started on December 11, , the Palestine mandate was not approved by the council of the League of Nations until July 24, , through the Treaty of San Remo.
British Empire: British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies—colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government.
Learn more about the British Empire in this article. The British empire is an empire that was formed in by the union of the kingdom of Scotland and the kingdom of England in the late 16th and 17th centuries as its height, it was the biggest and the largest Empire in history and, for over a .
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Causes of British Imperialism. Throughout history, countries have expanded their empires to create the largest and most powerful on the globe. Napoleon and Alexander the Great had two of . The History Of The British Empire History Essay The British empire is an empire that was formed in by the union of the kingdom of Scotland and the kingdom of England in the late 16th and 17th centuries as its height, it was the biggest and the largest Empire in history and, for over a century was the foremost global power.
The British East India Company was founded in , during the last years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England, for trade in the East Indies, which READ MORE HERE. The British empire is an empire that was formed in by the union of the kingdom of Scotland and the kingdom of England in the late 16th and 17th centuries as its height, it was the biggest and the largest Empire in history and, for over a . The British empire is an empire that was formed in by the union of the kingdom of Scotland and the kingdom of England in the late 16th and 17th centuries as its height, it was the biggest and the largest Empire in history and, for over a century was the foremost global power.