Medicine More than 8, people in the UK need a transplant, but a shortage of donors means that fewer than 3, transplants are carried out annually. Advances in medical science mean that the number of people whose lives could be saved by a transplant is rising more rapidly than the number of willing donors. Objections to a change in the law are sheer sentimentality. A dead body is an inanimate object, incapable of feeling.
Medical challenges[ edit ] There are three main technical challenges. As with any organ transplantmanaging the immune response to avoid transplant rejection is necessary. Also, the brain is highly dependent on continuous flow of blood to provide oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products, with damage setting in quickly at normal temperatures when blood flow is cut off.
Finally, managing the nervous systems in both the body and the head is essential, in several ways. Finally, the risk of systematic neuropathic pain is high and as of had largely been unaddressed in research. In he collaborated with the American Charles Claude Guthrie to attempt to graft the head of one dog on an intact second dog; the grafted head showed some reflexes early on but deteriorated quickly and the animal was killed after a few hours.
The dogs generally survived a few days; one survived 29 days. The grafted body parts were able to move and react to stimulus.
The animals died due to transplant rejection. White did a series of experiments in which he attempted to graft only the vascular system of isolated dog brains onto existing dogs, to learn how to manage this challenge.
He monitored brain activity with EEG and also monitored metabolismand showed that he could maintain high levels of brain activity and metabolism by avoiding any break in the blood supply. The animals survived between 6 hours and 2 days.
In he did four experiments in which he cut the head off of a monkey and connected the blood vessels of another monkey head to it; he did not attempt to connect the nervous systems. White used deep hypothermia to protect the brains during the times when they were cut off from blood during procedure.
The recipient bodies had to be kept alive with mechanical ventilation and drugs to stimulate the heart. The grafted heads were able to function - the eyes tracked moving objects and it could chew and swallow. There were problems with the grafting of blood vessels that led to blood clots forming, and White used high doses of immunosuppressive drugs that had severe side effects; the animals died between 6 hours and 3 days after the heads were engrafted.
Ren also used moderate hypothermia to protect the brains during the procedure. Those who promote such claims and who would subject any human being to unproven cruel surgery merit not headlines but only contempt and condemnation. One interrupted a banquet in his honor by offering him a bloody replica of a human head.
Others called his house asking for "Dr. When White testified in a civil hearing about Dr. These continued as other organs were transplanted, but perhaps became the most sharp as hand transplants and face transplants emerged in andas each of these are visible, personal, and social in ways that internal organs are not.
Because grafting the head onto the spinal cord was not possible at that time, the only feasible procedure would be one where the head was only connected to the blood supply of the donor body, leaving the person completely paralyzed, with the accompanying limited quality of life and high societal cost to maintain.
While concerns were raised about whether recipients of a face transplant and their social circle would have difficulty adjusting, studies as of had found that disruptions had been minimal.
But no transplant had ever been performed where the entire body of an individual is unfamiliar at the conclusion of the procedure, and one of the few documents discussing the ethics in the biomedical literature, a letter to the editor of a journal published inforesaw a high risk of insanity as a result of the procedure.The HUDOC database provides access to the case-law of the Court (Grand Chamber, Chamber and Committee judgments and decisions, communicated cases, advisory opinions and legal summaries from the Case-Law Information Note), the European Commission of Human Rights (decisions and reports) and the Committee of Ministers .
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Organ Donation Organ and tissue donation has become a key part of the healthcare sector. The number of patients whose organs are failing continues to increase. Consequently, the number of those in need of donated organs continues to rise, despite the limited number of donors. Abstract. Ethics is a philosophical discipline relating to concepts of good and bad in our moral life in community whereas bioethics is the application of ethics to the field of medication and healthcare.
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Article shared by. Here is your short essay on Organ Donation!. Organ donation is the act of donating an organ by a person so that it can be transplanted by surgical procedure in the body of the recipient.