Includes bibliographical references and index. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated.
This research presents an evaluative energy model for estimating the energy efficiency of the design choices of architects and engineers in the early design phase. We analyze the effects of various parameters with different characteristics in various combinations for building energy consumption.
With this analysis, we build a database that identifies a set of heuristic rules for energy-efficient building design to facilitate the design of sustainable apartment housing. Perturbation studies are based on a sensitivity analysis used to identify the thermal influence of the input design parameters on various simulation outputs and compare the results to a reference case.
Energy sensitivity weight factors are obtained from an extensive sensitivity study using building energy simulations. The results of the energy sensitivity study summarized in a set of heuristic rules for evaluating architectural features are estimated through case studies of Korean apartment buildings.
This study offers valuable guidelines for developing energy-efficient residential housing in Korea and will help architects in considering appropriate design schemes and provide a ready reference to generalized test cases for both architects and engineers so that they can zero in on a set of effective design solutions.
Introduction To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, various regulations and policies have been enacted for energy reduction in the building sector.
The building sector comprises more than 40 percent of the total energy consumption in the world and occupies the highest portion of the total energy load in Korea [ 12 ]. As the Korean government has pursued reducing residential energy use [ 567 ], many researchers have studied and derived residential energy consumption models to construct energy efficient apartment housings in Korea.
Therefore, it is necessary to provide designers and architects with design decision support models to assist them in making energy efficient design decisions in the early design phase.
This study offers a simulated energy load profile and associated estimation model by iterating individual design parameters while keeping other parameters constant to establish a database that informs a set of heuristic rules for energy effective green home design.
The problem of obtaining optimal goals related to features representing a large number of variables and non-linear objective functions is known as an NP-hard problem. Deriving optimal combinations of architectural components while considering energy efficiency and cost is a puzzle that cannot be solved effectively using traditional optimization techniques.
A heuristic method can be one of the most effective solutions. Heuristic refers to experience-based techniques for problem solving, learning, and discovery that offer a solution that is not guaranteed to be optimal but may be an efficient solution.
Where an exhaustive search is impractical, heuristic methods can speed up the process of finding a satisfactory solution by mental shortcuts to ease the cognitive load of decision-making. Heuristic methodology can also be used for deriving an optimized design solution considering energy consumption or cost reduction in the field of building energy.
By establishing energy sensitive heuristic rules, architects and designers can determine the best alternative that will minimize the energy load. To do this, it is necessary to evaluate the energy effects of each architectural component by performing a sensitivity analysis of the parameters influencing energy consumption in apartment buildings.
According to previous studies [ 89 ], the sensitivity method evaluates the relationship between variations in output parameters and is used to solve optimization problems with numerous combination tests.
To investigate a given feature as the subject of analysis in a complex model, the target factor must be iteratively changed and evaluated while other parameters remain fixed. The sensitivity method is often utilized in the fields of mathematics and control engineering, as in [ 10 ].
In economics, the concept of elasticity is used to estimate the sensitivity and responsiveness of a system [ 10 ]. Many studies using sensitivity analysis have been conducted to determine various design parameters that affect building energy consumption.
They analyzed important input design factors from the perspective of annual building energy consumption.
Several options for constructive parameters have been explored for energy efficient building design. Sensitivity analysis has been used to derive the estimated cooling and heating loads to examine more precise values for those inputs that have a greater influence on the total thermal load.
A heuristic methodology based on sensitivity analysis is useful for evaluating the thermal performance of a building and identifying the level of uncertainty in building energy simulation results. This approach has a limitation in solving a non-linear problem in a building thermal environment, the sensitivity analysis can provide appropriate information for determining the best alternative for a given situation [ 10111213 ].
Research Methodology This study focuses on discovering the effect of various parameters with different characteristics in various combinations. Input parameters are analyzed in terms of thermal performance of buildings that will inform a set of heuristic rules for energy-efficient building design.
Generally, cooling systems receive little consideration in the design phase in Korean climatic environment because the yearly cooling period is shorter than the heating period and because Koreans generally prefer floor heating systems. Therefore, we explore heating energy usage in Korean apartment buildings by utilizing a building energy simulation.
First, we conducted an extensive background study to choose proper parameters that have a potential impact on energy performance in Korean apartment buildings. In addition, the various research papers, as well as guidelines such as domestic regulation and policy for the Korean environment, are intensively analyzed to reflect the energy characteristics of apartment buildings in Korea.The greater load for ground floors may be attributed to under-floor heating loss to ground heat.
Housing units also have different heating energy loads based on the exterior area exposed to outside air, with apartments that are more externally exposed consuming much more energy.
we selected target parameters relating to heat conduction. For the present type of STEG and TE module used, the heat flux, based on the cross-sectional area of the copper plate, should be around × 10 5 W/m 2 per TE module, and the heat dissipation rate of the heat sink should be less than W/m 2, while the cooling air flow rate should be more than m 3 .
Interesting science fair project ideas for students. Radiation is one of the modes of heat transfer, in addition to conduction and convection.
A clear, cloudless night (where you can see the stars) allows an object to transfer heat energy (by way of thermal radiation) to the night sky, where the night sky is simply a "very cold object" into.
The term heat and the associated phrases such as heat flow, heat addition, heat rejection, heat absorption, heat gain, heat loss, heat storage, heat generation, electrical heating, latent heat, body heat, and heat source are in common use today, and the attempt to replace heat in these phrases by thermal energy had only limited success.5/5(2).
Investigate the Affects on the Rate of Heat Conduction Under Different Insulations Essay Sample. Materials that prevent heat loss are called insulators. They can prevent three different types of heat loss; 1. Conduction. 2. Convection.
3. Radiation. Conduction of heat occurs mainly in solids. The Effect of Insulation on the Rate of Cooling - The Effect of Insulation on the Rate of Cooling P PLANNING The Problem The problem which I intend to investigate is out if insulation affects the rate of cooling, and whether the amounts of insulation would affect the rate of cooling Scientific Background An insulator is any of various substances that blocks or slows down the flow of heat, they.