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Early history[ edit ] Ancient China was the first country in the world that implemented a nationwide standardized test, which was called the imperial examination.
The main purpose of this examination was to select able candidates for specific governmental positions. England had adopted this examination system in to select specific candidates for positions in Her Majesty's Civil Servicemodeled on the Chinese imperial examination.
Civil service[ edit ] From the mid 19th century, universities began to institute written examinations to assess the aptitude of the pupils. This is an excerpt from the Tripos examination in Cambridge University. As the profession transitioned to the modern mass-education system, the style of examination became fixed, with the stress on standardized papers to be sat by large numbers of students.
Leading the way in this regard was the burgeoning Civil Service that began to move toward a meritocratic basis for selection in the mid 19th century in England. British civil service was influenced by the imperial examinations system and meritocratic system of China.
Thomas Taylor Meadows, Britain's consul in GuangzhouChina argued in his Desultory Notes on the Government and People of China, published inthat "the long duration of the Chinese empire is solely and altogether owing to the good government which consists in the advancement of men of talent and merit only," and that the British must reform their civil service by making the institution meritocratic.
Influenced by the ancient Chinese Imperial Examination, the Northcote—Trevelyan Report of made four principal recommendations: This was a tribute to its success in removing corruption, delivering public services even under the stress of two world warsand responding effectively to political change.
It also had a great international influence and was adapted by members of the Commonwealth. Education[ edit ] Students taking a scholarship examination inside a classroom in Written examinations had been unheard of before for European education. In the US, the transition happened under the influence of the educational reformer Horace Mann.
This shift decisively helped to move education into the modern era, by standardizing expanding curricula in the sciences and humanitiescreating a rationalized method for the evaluation of teachers and institutions and creating a basis for the streaming of students according to ability.
Tests were used to determine the mental aptitude of recruits to the military. Inthe first Advanced Placement AP test was administered to begin closing the gap between high schools and colleges. In contrast, high school students in other countries such as the United States may not be required to take a standardized test to graduate.
Moreover, students in these countries usually take standardized tests only to apply for a position in a university program and are typically given the option of taking different standardized tests such as the ACT or SATwhich are used primarily to measure a student's reasoning skill.
Depending on the policies of the test maker or country, administration of standardized tests may be done in a large hall, classroom, or testing center. A proctor or invigilator may also be present during the testing period to provide instructions, to answer questions, or to prevent cheating.
Grades or test scores from standardized test may also be used by universities to determine if a student applicant should be admitted into one of its academic or professional programs.
For example, universities in the United Kingdom admit applicants into their undergraduate programs based primarily or solely on an applicant's grades on pre-university qualifications such as the GCE A-levels or Cambridge Pre-U.
The other criteria in this case may include the applicant's grades from high school, extracurricular activities, personal statement, and letters of recommendations. Standardized tests are sometimes used by certain countries to manage the quality of their educational institutions.
For example, the No Child Left Behind Act in the United States requires individual states to develop assessments for students in certain grades. In practice, these assessments typically appear in the form of standardized tests.
Test scores of students in specific grades of an educational institution are then used to determine the status of that educational institution, i. Finally, standardized tests are sometimes used to compare proficiencies of students from different institutions or countries.
For example, a test taker who intends to become a lawyer is usually required by a governing body such as a governmental bar licensing agency to pass a bar exam. Immigration and naturalization[ edit ] Standardized tests are also used in certain countries to regulate immigration.
For example, intended immigrants to Australia are legally required to pass a citizenship test as part of that country's naturalization process. One refers to the construction and deconstruction of the nation's constitutive elements that makes their own identity, while the second has a more restricted view of the notion of specific language and ideologies that may served in an specific purpose.Final Exam - Topic #4 a.
Analyze, compare and contrast WWI and WWII home front issues and controversies.
WWI: Draft (socialists were against it cause it violated the 13th amendment - Schenck case) War Bonds (loands/borrowed money/Liberty bonds). War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch). The Food Administration (Herbert Hoover). Really useful day. Will be recommending to others.
Great exam preparation. Clarified anatomy in a logical and systematic manner.
Very interactive. MyRSU helps students, faculty and staff manage their life at RSU all in one convenient place. See classes and complete assignments in eLearning (MyCourses). Precalculus: An Investigation of Functions (2nd Ed) David Lippman and Melonie Rasmussen.
IMPORTANT NOTE: This page contains details on the current, second edition of the ashio-midori.com you are looking for the original first edition (black cover), please go here.. Precalculus: An Investigation of Functions is a free, open textbook covering a two-quarter pre-calculus sequence including trigonometry.
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