What does WebDav do? WebDav is an access protocol for data that provides a framework for users to create, change and move documents on a server. It provides support for remote collaborative authoring of web sites and individual documents, as well as remote access to document based systems Hence, they have begun switching over to electronic document management systems for making the office completely paperless.
This is important because users tend to pick poor guessable user names and passwords and to repeat them at different sites. Passport is notable as it is being very widely File transfer protocol a white paper by Microsoft. At the time of this writing, Passport boasts 40 million consumers and more than authentications per second on average.
We examine the Passport single signon protocol, and identify several risks and attacks. We discuss a flaw that we discovered in the interaction of Passport and Netscape browsers that leaves a user logged in while informing him that he has successfully logged out.
Finally, we suggest several areas of improvement. Web Security, Single Signon, Authentication, E-commerce It has become common practice for retailers, banks, service providers, and just about everyone else to provide customers with a way of shopping on the Web. To ensure the security of these customers' financial data, the online vendors often require a username and a password to access an account.
Users are faced with a dilemma when creating multiple accounts. Do they use the same name and password for all the accounts?
If so, that means that, for example, their online grocery store will have access to their stock trading account.
The alternative is to maintain a list of usernames and passwords. This list must be written down, as so many names and passwords are cumbersome to remember. As such, compromise of this list constitutes potential for a serious loss. Single signon is the term used to represent a system whereby users need only remember one username and password, and authenticated a can be provided for multiple services.
Kerberos  is an example of a system where users provide a password and receive a ticket in exchange. The ticket can be used to authenticate users to different network services. Kerberos single signon is possible because all of the services are under the same administrative control.
There is a centralized database containing keys that are shared with each service, and tickets can be issued, encrypted under the keys of the target services.
Single signon on the web is much more difficult. Different web sites are under completely different administrative control. Thus, it is not natural to imagine signing in once, and gaining authenticated access to multiple, independent web services.
Passport is Microsoft's ambitious attempt to provide this service. While the overall architecture makes sense given the constraints of the protocol, namely, to use only existing web technologies that are present in most browsers and serversthere are some risks associated with using this protocol that are not pointed out in the paper.
We refer to the online description of Passport that can be found at http: The draft we refer to is the one at the time of this writing.
We were unable to locate a paper copy to reference. As just mentioned, one of the constraints of Passport is that it was designed to use existing web technologies, so that clients and servers need not be modified.
As such, they are not specific to Passport, but nonetheless represent risks of using that system and any system subject to these constraints. SSL is a wonderful protocol. It is well designed, has withstood much analysis and scrutiny , and its deployment is probably the single most positive step towards anything resembling security on the web.
While we find no fault in the SSL protocol or its implementations in browsers and servers, we believe that the certification model and user interface can lead to problems.
Browsers come with many default "root" public keys. For example, Netscape Navigator 4. Anyone who controls the corresponding private keys can issue certificates that are automatically trusted by all major browsers. All it takes is for one of the certifying authorities with a weak policy, security breach, or intentional compromise e.
If an entity can obtain a certificate from a trusted authority, then the only recourse of the user when presented with a "secure" web site is to check the security information and determine that the root CA that signed the certificate is one it trusts, and that the name in the certificate corresponds to the actual entity with which it wants to have a secure session.
Most users are not qualified to determine either of these things, and are probably not even aware of SSL or certificates anyhow. As it stands, the SSL model does not lend itself naturally to the problem of delegation. This is exactly the feature that Passport requires. So, Passport uses the existing web technologies to the best of its abilities.
Unfortunately, the resulting protocol poses several risks to the user, and these are the focus of this paper.File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an application layer protocol, which has the primary function of transferring data files between computers (Clark ).
The protocol specification was originally developed in the early s, and was published as RFC in April , by Abhay Bhushan. This occurred.
Hopper File Management Tool (U) J.W. Long,* N.J. O’Neill,* N.G. Smith,* R.R. Springmeyer* *Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Hopper is a powerful interactive tool that allows users to transfer and manipulate files and directories by means of a graphical user interface.
White Paper: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Throughput Testing 5 It should now be clear that each layer’s overhead bits must be considered when calculating FTP throughput. WHITE PAPER: Simply put, traditional file transfer protocol (FTP)-based solutions are ineffective.
It's time to upgrade to a new approach that can help you meet data growth and increasingly stringent security and compliance measures head on. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) network management model defines five functional areas of network management.
This document covers all functional areas. The overall purpose of this document is to provide practical recommendations on each functional area to increase the overall effectiveness of current management tools and practices.
AFTP (Accelerated File Transfer Protocol) is a hybrid TCP/UDP protocol developed by JSCAPE that enables users to accelerate file transfers over high speed networks that are unable to fully utilize network throughput due to high latency and/or packet loss.