Dravidian languages Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languagesa family of around 26 languages native to the Indian subcontinent. The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam ; the two began diverging around the 9th century AD. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic complexes of South India.
The Meenakshi Amman Temple Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire.
During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.
Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. He defeated Mahipalathe king of Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavasacknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage.
The celebrated Nataraja temple at Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities.
Architecture from Chola period From left to right: The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after the midth century, many local rulers, called Nayakssucceeded in gaining the trappings of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom.
They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple. Power struggles of the 18th century — [ edit ] By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent.
The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire inthe northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnaticwho had his seat in Arcot from onward.
Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the Thanjavur Nayaks led to a short-lived Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams.
The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar or 'polygar' as called by British and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic.
Fort Dansborg at Tharangambadi built by the Danish Europeans started to establish trade centres during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Aroundthe Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar.
British constructed Fort St. George  and established a trading post at Madras. The British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years' War.
Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of Mysore. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts.
Ina tripartite treaty was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British.
In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.
Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Veeran Sundaralingam — was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in which killed more than British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace.
Oomaithuraiyounger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothersPeriya Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army .Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful.
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Easily zoom, search and flip through the pages on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Tamil (/ ˈ t æ m ɪ l /; தமிழ் Tamiḻ, pronunciation (help · info)) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and ashio-midori.com is an official language of three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore.
It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the. We’ve updated our eEdition. The NEW version of the eEdition has the same great look as our printed newspaper.
Easily zoom, search and flip through the pages on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Sally Ride Earthkam 64th mission.
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