There is a cyclical relationship between stigma and HIV; people who experience stigma and discrimination are marginalised and made more vulnerable to HIV, while those living with HIV are more vulnerable to experiencing stigma and discrimination. Roughly one in eight people living with HIV is being denied health services because of stigma and discrimination. Adopting a human rights approach to HIV and AIDS is in the best interests of public health and is key to eradicating stigma and discrimination.
Schooling[ edit ] India is on target to meet its Millennium Development Goal of gender parity in education by In rural India girls continue to be less educated than boys. Kugler and Santosh Kumar, published in Demographyexamined the role of familial size and child composition in terms of gender of the first-born child and others on the educational attainment achieved in a particular family.
Compared to boys, far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out. According to majority of the scholars, the major factor behind the improved social and economic status of women in Kerala is literacy.
Health and survival inequalities[ edit ] Main article: Sex-selective abortion Birth sex ratio map for India, boys per girls in 0 to 1 age group according to census. Women have a biological advantage over men for longevity and survival; however, there have been more men than women in India and other Asian countries.
Female infanticide killing of girl infants is still prevalent in some rural areas. The economical reasons include, earning of power as men as are the main income-earners, potential pensions, as when the girl is married she would part ways with her family and the most important one, the payment of dowry.
Even though, it is illegal by Indian law to ask for dowry, it is still a common practice in certain socio-economic classes which leads to female infanticide, as the baby girls are seen as an economic burden.
Other institutional efforts, such as advertisements calling female foeticides a sin by the Health Ministry of India and annual Girl Child Day  can be observed to raise status of girls and to combat female infanticide. Healthcare in India Immunisation rates for 2 year olds was The male to female suicide ratio among adults in India has been about 2: Mental health concerns[ edit ] See also: Crime rate in this map includes all Indian Penal Code crimes such as rape, sexual assault, insult to modesty, kidnapping, abduction, cruelty by intimate partner or relatives, importation or trafficking of girls, persecution for dowry, dowry deaths, indecency, and all other crimes identified by Indian law.
NCRB report states 8, dowry deaths in the country in Honor killings are difficult to verify, and there is dispute whether social activists are inflating numbers. In most cases, honor killings are linked to the woman marrying someone that the family strongly disapproves of.
Estimates place deaths per year or about 1 per million people. A total of These Amendments were implemented in This, suggest Ghani et al. This preference cuts across class and caste lines, and it discriminates against girls. The causes of gender inequalities are complex, but a number of cultural factors in India can explain how son preference, a key driver of daughter neglect, is so prevalent.
Most of India, with some exceptions, has strong patriarchal and patrilineal customs, where men hold authority over female family members and inherit family property and title. Examples of patriarchy in India include prevailing customs where inheritance passes from father to son, women move in with the husband and his family upon marriage, and marriages include a bride price or dowry.
Furthermore, sons are expected to support their parents in old age and women have very limited ability to assist their own parents. Boys are given the exclusive rights to inherit the family name and properties and they are viewed as additional status for their family.
In a survey-based study of s data, scholars  found that son are believed to have a higher economic utility as they can provide additional labour in agriculture. All these factors make sons more desirable. A study in Madurai, India, found that old age security, economic motivation, and to a lesser extent, religious obligations, continuation of the family name, and help in business or farm, were key reasons for son preference.
In turn, emotional support and old age security were main reasons for daughter preference. The study underscored a strong belief that a daughter is a liability. Discrimination against girls[ edit ] Main article: Discrimination against girls in India While women express a strong preference for having at least one son, the evidence of discrimination against girls after they are born is mixed.
A study of s survey data by scholars  found less evidence of systematic discrimination in feeding practices between young boys and girls, or gender based nutritional discrimination in India. In impoverished families, these scholars found that daughters face discrimination in the medical treatment of illnesses and in the administration of vaccinations against serious childhood diseases.
These practices were a cause of health and survival inequality for girls. While gender discrimination is a universal phenomena in poor nations, a UN study found that social norms-based gender discrimination leads to gender inequality in India.
The practice is widespread across geographic region, class and religions.
Such beliefs limit the resources invested by parents in their girls and limits her bargaining power within the family. Child marriage in India Men and women have equal rights within marriage under Indian law, with the exception of all men who are allowed to unilaterally divorce their wife.
Child marriage is one of the detriments to empowerment of women.
According to one source, this provision is much abused as only four percent of the cases go to the court and the final conviction rate is as low as two percent.Approaching the Diversity Essay Question.
Facebook Tweet Google+ Pin Email. Many applications now have a question, sometimes optional, geared to encouraging people with minority backgrounds or unusual educational or family histories to write about their background.
You suffered from discrimination and formed your values and personality. Unity in diversity in India shows us that we all are born, cared and nourished by one Supreme God. Unity in Diversity Essay 4 ( words) Unity in diversity is the oneness in differences. HIV-related stigma and discrimination refers to prejudice, negative attitudes and abuse directed at people living with HIV and AIDS.
In 35% of countries with available data, over 50% of people report having discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV.1 Stigma and discrimination also makes people vulnerable to HIV. Essay on “Gender Discrimination” in India ( Words) Article shared by Females of our country have faced the discrimination for ages now and still continue to exist in various forms.
Ethnic relations in India have historically been complex. with more than 2, different ethnic groups. Furthermore, within India, there is also significant diversity within regions, and almost every province has its own distinct mixture of ethnicities, traditions, and culture.
in an attempt to prevent such discrimination. Gender Diversity increases the awareness and understanding of the wide range of gender diversity in children, adolescents, and adults by providing family support, building community, increasing societal awareness, and improving the well-being for people of all gender identities and expressions.