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This is true not only of GNU software, but also of a great deal of proprietary and free software. Using a common language is quite handy for communication between developers, maintainers and users from all countries. Many would simply love to see their computer screen showing a lot less of English, and far more of their own language.
However, to many people, this dream might appear so far fetched that they may believe it is not even worth spending time thinking about it. They have no confidence at all that the dream might ever become true. Yet some have not lost hope, and have organized themselves.
The Translation Project is a formalization of this hope into a workable structure, which has a good chance to get all of us nearer the achievement of a truly multi-lingual set of programs. GNU gettext is an important step for the Translation Project, as it is an asset on which we may build many other steps.
This package offers to programmers, translators and even users, a well integrated set of tools and documentation. Specifically, the GNU gettext utilities are a set of tools that provides a framework within which other free packages may produce multi-lingual messages.
These tools include A set of conventions about how programs should be written to support message catalogs. A directory and file naming organization for the message catalogs themselves.
A runtime library supporting the retrieval of translated messages. A few stand-alone programs to massage in various ways the sets of translatable strings, or already translated strings. A library supporting the parsing and creation of files containing translated messages.
A abc writing application forms mode for Emacs 1 which helps preparing these sets and bringing them up to date. GNU gettext is designed to minimize the impact of internationalization on program sources, keeping this impact as small and hardly noticeable as possible.
Internationalization has better chances of succeeding if it is very light weighted, or at least, appear to be so, when looking at program sources. The Translation Project also uses the GNU gettext distribution as a vehicle for documenting its structure and methods. This goes beyond the strict technicalities of documenting the GNU gettext proper.
By so doing, translators will find in a single place, as far as possible, all they need to know for properly doing their translating work. Also, this supplemental documentation might also help programmers, and even curious users, in understanding how GNU gettext is related to the remainder of the Translation Project, and consequently, have a glimpse at the big picture.
The words are internationalization and localization. Many people, tired of writing these long words over and over again, took the habit of writing i18n and l10n instead, quoting the first and last letter of each word, and replacing the run of intermediate letters by a number merely telling how many such letters there are.
But in this manual, in the sake of clarity, we will patiently write the names in full, each time… By internationalization, one refers to the operation by which a program, or a set of programs turned into a package, is made aware of and able to support multiple languages.
This is a generalization process, by which the programs are untied from calling only English strings or other English specific habits, and connected to generic ways of doing the same, instead. Program developers may use various techniques to internationalize their programs.
Some of these have been standardized. GNU gettext offers one of these standards. By localization, one means the operation by which, in a set of programs already internationalized, one gives the program all needed information so that it can adapt itself to handle its input and output in a fashion which is correct for some native language and cultural habits.
This is a particularisation process, by which generic methods already implemented in an internationalized program are used in specific ways.
The programming environment puts several functions to the programmers disposal which allow this runtime configuration.
The formal description of specific set of cultural habits for some country, together with all associated translations targeted to the same native language, is called the locale for this language or country.
Users achieve localization of programs by setting proper values to special environment variables, prior to executing those programs, identifying which locale should be used. In fact, locale message support is only one component of the cultural data that makes up a particular locale.
There are a whole host of routines and functions provided to aid programmers in developing internationalized software and which allow them to access the data stored in a particular locale.
When someone presently refers to a particular locale, they are obviously referring to the data stored within that particular locale. One uses the expression Native Language Support, or merely NLS, for speaking of the overall activity or feature encompassing both internationalization and localization, allowing for multi-lingual interactions in a program.
In a nutshell, one could say that internationalization is the operation by which further localizations are made possible.Full Adobe Suite Fast, Experienced Staff Stationary & Brochures Logo Design Branding.
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1 Introduction. This chapter explains the goals sought in the creation of GNU gettext and the free Translation Project. Then, it explains a few broad concepts around Native Language Support, and positions message translation with regard to other aspects of national and cultural variance, as .