A biography of gilbert newton lewis

Fitzmorris, Grand River Hotel. Grand River Chronicle, E.

A biography of gilbert newton lewis

In Lewis terms a covalent bond is a shared electron pair. The bond between a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom in hydrogen chloride is formulated as follows: Education and academic career Lewis spent his youth in LincolnNeb.

Initially educated at home by his parents, at age 13 he entered the preparatory school of the University of Nebraska in Lincoln.

After a year of teaching at Phillips Academy in AndoverMass. After graduation, Lewis remained at Harvard as an instructor for a year. He then pursued postgraduate work in the laboratories of Wilhelm Ostwald and Walther Nernst in Germany, before he returned for another three years as an instructor at Harvard and then a year in the Philippine Islands as superintendent of weights and measures.

In Lewis joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridgeand in he was appointed permanent dean of the college of chemistry and chair of the department of chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley, where he remained until his death at age 70 of an apparent heart attack while working in his laboratory.

During his year tenure at Berkeley, Lewis succeeded in molding its chemistry department into one of the best in the United States. Though his appointment as chair at Berkeley relieved him of all classroom teaching duties, Lewis was well known for his insightful and often witty comments during student and staff research seminars.

A brilliant conversationalist, with an almost unlimited supply of jokes and bon mots, Lewis was also addicted to the use of limericks and puns.

He preferred to write his books and papers by dictating them to his assistants and collaborators, having fully composed his carefully crafted sentences in his head. When dictating, he would pace up and down the room while smoking an imported cigar—a habit picked up during his stay in the Philippines.

In Lewis married Mary Hinckley Sheldon, by whom he had three children, a daughter and two sons. In there was still a large gap between thermodynamic theory and practice.

A biography of gilbert newton lewis

There was a complete theory of chemical equilibriadeveloped 20 years earlier by the American physicist Josiah Willard Gibbswhich showed that chemical equilibrium was determined by the free energies of the reacting substances.

Lewis set himself the task of closing this gap between theory and practice.

The subject of chemical bonding is at the heart of chemistry. In Gilbert Newton Lewis (–) published his seminal paper suggesting that a chemical bond is a pair of electrons shared by two atoms. Commissioner Gregory was at this time ordered to enter the land, the quarter section, on which the town was situated, but did not do so; and notwithstanding lots were sold and titles made by the county from October, , the town site belonged to the United States and was not entered until August, , when it was entered by Wm. E. Pearl, county seat commissioner. Get the latest music news, watch video clips from music shows, events, and exclusive performances from your favorite artists. Discover new country music on CMT.

This required that he either directly measure the missing free-energy values for chemical substances or supplement the existing enthalpy data with entropy values, which would allow their calculation.

Second, it was also necessary to find some way of extending the empirical laws to include the behaviour of real gases and concentrated solutions. In pursuit of the first of these goals, Lewis initiated a vigorous experimental program designed to measure the missing free-energy and entropy values.

In pursuit of the second goal, he successively introduced the concepts of fugacityactivity coefficientand ionic strength ; a measure of the average electrostatic interactions among ions in a solution.

Education and academic career

These efforts culminated in in the publication of Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances, written in collaboration with chemist Merle Randall. Though his first attempts in this area date as early ashe did not publish on the subject until —and then only to comment critically on attempts of others to formulate similar theories.

In Lewis finally published his own model, which equated the classical chemical bond with the sharing of a pair of electrons between the two bonded atoms. Now known as Lewis structuresthey are discussed in virtually every introductory chemistry book.

Shortly after publication of his paper, Lewis became involved with military research. Many current terms relating to the chemical bond, such as covalent and the octet rule, were actually introduced by Langmuir rather than Lewis.

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Pauling transformed it into the valence bond model and made it the subject of his classic book, The Nature of the Chemical Bond Deuterium, acid-base theoryand the triplet state Between andLewis published more than 26 papers dealing with the separation and study of the properties of deuterium and its compounds.

This was followed by a brief period of interest in neutron refraction —37 and by his classic work on the electronic theory of acids and bases Now universally known as the Lewis acid-base definitions, these concepts define an acid as an electron-pair acceptor and a base as an electron-pair donor.

First proposed, almost as a passing thought, in his monograph on chemical bonding, discussions of Lewis acids and bases are now found in most introductory chemistry textbooks. Almost simultaneously with his work on acid-base theory, Lewis also began his classic research on the triplet state and its role in determining the nature of the fluorescence, phosphorescence, and colours of organic dyeswhich continued until his death.

Speculations Lewis occasionally published speculative papers dealing with fundamental problems in theoretical physics. While still a student at Harvard, he had postulated that light could exert a pressure on dilute matter in outer space, and he later introduced the term photon to describe the particulate nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Later papers dealt with vector analysisrational units, quantum field theorystatistical mechanicsand the thermodynamics of glacier formation. Some of these speculations were discussed in his third and final book, The Anatomy of Science It has been suggested that he should have shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with American Harold Urey for his contributions to the separation and study of deuterium and its compounds and that, had he lived longer, he most certainly would have shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Pauling for his contributions to the theory of the chemical bond.The subject of chemical bonding is at the heart of chemistry.

In Gilbert Newton Lewis (–) published his seminal paper suggesting that a chemical bond is a pair of electrons shared by two atoms.

A biography of gilbert newton lewis

Commissioner Gregory was at this time ordered to enter the land, the quarter section, on which the town was situated, but did not do so; and notwithstanding lots were sold and titles made by the county from October, , the town site belonged to the United States and was not entered until August, , when it was entered by Wm.

E. Pearl, county seat commissioner. A database of political history and cemeteries, with brief biographical entries for , U.S. political figures, living and dead, from the s to the present.

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Gilbert Newton Lewis - History and Biography

Get an overview of major world indexes, current values and stock market data. Gilbert Newton Lewis Biography Gilbert Lewis was an American physicist known throughout the world for his work in the so-called point diagrams or the so-called Lewis structure and the idea of the concept of covalent bond and photon.

He was born on October 23, , in Weymouth, Massachusetts and is the son of Mary Burr White [ ]. Get the latest music news, watch video clips from music shows, events, and exclusive performances from your favorite artists.

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Gilbert N. Lewis - Wikipedia